Medical and Health Care Sciences

Role of Zinc as a Micronutrient in Life and Human Health

Article Number: KCV106403 Volume 01 | Issue 01 | January - 2019 ISSN: UA
04th Sep, 2018
13th Oct, 2018
18th Dec, 2018
21st Jan, 2019


Rajesh Kumar Gupta


There are so many micronutrients which are important to human health and nutrition but amongst all the micrnutrients, Zinc is a vital constituent which is most significant and its importance for the health is increasing day by day and due to its deficiency, many diseases may appear. Zinc plays three major biological roles such as catalytic, structural and regulatory ion, hence it is an important trace element for the organisms. Zinc is critically affected in many aspects of human health such as in immune function, homeostasis, apoptosis, oxidative stress, aging and many disorders related to the health of human are also associated with the zinc deficiency. Zinc insufficiency may complex out the medical factors of various chronicor prolonged ailments or disorders like as malignancies, atherosclerosis, autoimmune diseases, neurological disorders, age-related degenerative diseases, aging, and Wilson’s disease increases oxidative pressure and reaches to the generation of inflammatory cytokines and affects immunological status adversely. In this paper, the multipurpose of zinc is discussed and also discussed its biological significance in immunity and prolonged sicknesses including diabetes, cancer, HIV, Wilson’s disease and other age and skin associated illnesses. Keywords: Zinc, Human Health, Health Benefits, Immune Responses, Zinc Deficiency


Zinc (Zn) is one of the most essential trace element in the body and is ubiquitous. It is very essential for the progress and advancement of microorganism, animals and plants. In adults, the average amount of the zinc is about 1.4-2.3g. It is secreted in all tissues of the body, and it secretes with a high proportion in the muscles and bones with 85% of the whole body, in skin and liver, it is approximately 11% and higher concentration from other remaining secretes in the prostate and various parts of the eye. The minimum need for zinc in humans for their health, well-being and satisfactory growth, differs according to the nutrition taken, climatic situations, stress presence caused by the distress, infections and parasitic infestations.

Zinc and Immunity

Zinc plays a crucial part in the sustainance of immune functions like as humoral and cellular immunity and zinc deficit. Zinc may affect the aspects of immune systems and crucial for phagocytosis, cell-mediated immune systems also for the utility of natural killer cells, neutrophils, and macrophages. The growth of B and T cells may be harmfully influenced by the deficit of zinc and it may potentiate the apoptosis. It has been observed that the decrease in an absolute number of splenocytes, thymic atrophy, and decreased responses to both T-cell dependent (TD) and T cell independent (T1) antigens in young adult zinc-deficient mice. Animals establish a serious weakening in their capability to produce a cytotoxic T killer response to the tumor challenge and preserved on a zinc-deficit diet for as slight as 2 weeks.

Zinc and Its Health Benefits

Zinc deficiency causes reduce in the flowing luteinizing hormone and testosterone absorptions, modifies sex steroid hormone receptor levels along with the alterations in the hepatic steroid metabolism hence causing male reproductive dysfunction. For maintaining normal serum testosterone, Zn is very essential and the pituitary gland is prevented from secreting luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormone by the inadequate level of Zn. It also prevents the aromatase enzyme alters testosterone into extra estrogen. Augmented threat of heart disease, obesity and weight gain are caused by the higher estrogen activity. Zinc also helps to produce healthier sperm with increase sperm count and motility along with the other impacts on hormone levels. Zn deficiency leads to the enlargement of the prostate gland due to the infection.

1. Zinc as an antioxidant

Cytosolic Zinc/Cu superoxide dismutase stabilizes by the Zn which starts catalysis of superoxide elimination by feature of zinc –histidyl-Cu triad, which acts as a proton presenter while on the oxidation cycle. The NADPH oxidases which catalyze the making of superoxide O2- from O2 and Cytotoxic cytokines TNF- α, IL-1β and IL-8 which produce free radicals are also repressed by the zinc element. Whereas, the generation of cysteine-rich metallothionein which is a brilliant scavenger of hydroxyl (OH-) radical induces by the zinc element.


Akhtar, Saeed. “Zinc Status in South Asian Populations—An Update.” Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, vol. 31, no. 2, Sept. 2013.

Brown, Kenneth H., et al. “The Importance of Zinc in Human Nutrition and Estimation of the Global Prevalence of Zinc Deficiency.” Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 22, no. 2, 2001, pp. 113–125.

Chasapis, Christos T., et al. “Zinc and Human Health: an Update.” Archives of Toxicology, vol. 86, no. 4, Oct. 2011, pp. 521–534.

Devi, Ch. Bimola, et al. “Zinc in Human Health.” IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences, vol. 13, no. 7, July 2014, pp. 18–23.

Frassinetti, Stefania, et al. “The Role of Zinc in Life: A Review.” Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology, vol. 25, no. 3, 2006, pp. 597–610.

Imtiaz, Muhammad, et al. “The Role of Micronutrients in Crop Production and Human Health.” Pak. J. Bot, vol. 42, no. 4, 2010, pp. 2565–2578.

Patil, Yogesh P., et al. “Biochemistry of Metal Absorption in Human Body: Reference to Check Impact of Nano Particles on Human Being.” International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, vol. 3, no. 4, Apr. 2013, pp. 1–5.

S., Rajeswari, and SwaminathanSwaminathan S. “Role of Zinc and Copper in Infertility: An Update.” International Journal of Multidisciplinary and Current Research, vol. 3, June 2015, pp. 607–612.

Wieringa, Frank, et al. “Determination of Zinc Status in Humans: Which Indicator Should We Use?” Nutrients, vol. 7, no. 5, June 2015, pp. 3252–3263.

How to cite this article?

APA StyleGupta, R. K. (2019). Role of Zinc as a Micronutrient in Life and Human Health. Academic Journal of Medical and Health Care Sciences, 1(1), 18-23
Chicago Style
MLA Style

Create Your Password

We've sent a link to create password on your registered email, Click the link in email to start using Xournal.

Sign In

Forgot Password?
Don't have an account? Create Account

Create Account

Already have an account? Sign In

Forgot Password

Do you want to try again? Sign In

Publication Tracking