Academic Journal of

Anthropological Studies

[Abbr: Acd. Jr. AJASt]

Forensic Linguistic: An Emerging Field

by Ankita Sharma, Ashi Yadav

Forensic Linguistics deals with the examination of language evidence in a criminal or civil matter. Forensic linguistics have been an arena of significance in many fields especially in judicial systems, legal forensic matters, and investigation of the criminal cases. The word refers to legal and professional analysis of recorded or written evidence by forensic linguists to provide correct explanations. It can be carried out for three interrelated areas: (1) language as the medium of communication between law enforcement authorities and suspects/witnesses or as the medium of legal debate in the courtroom, (2) language of the law (issues of intelligibility, interpretation and construction of legal language), and (3) crimes of language and linguistic evidence. The objective of this research is to review the literature of forensic linguistics. This study used a descriptive qualitative method. As a result of analysis, it is shown that forensic linguistics is the interdisciplinary field that studies, explains, and investigates language in court as evidence to police, judges and lawyers. Keywords: Linguistic Evidence; Forensic Linguistics; Professional; Interdisciplinary

A review on the Latest Innovations in Facial Imaging

by Priyanka Bansal, Ashi Yadav

The term "facial imaging" refers to techniques that utilize facial photographs to aid or make it easier for people to identify. Age progression and regression using face-only methods, the creation of facial graphics from eyewitness memory (including composites and artistic sketches), facial depiction, face mapping, and recently created molecular photo fitting techniques are all included in this. Facial approximation and photographic superimposition are two techniques used for craniofacial identification that make use of skulls and faces. Each of these face imaging fields, though not all of them have historically been classified as such, belongs to the field of physical anthropology because they are all concerned with the human body's physical attributes. This presents helpful chances to apply tried-and-true techniques from one field to others that are more commonly considered to be physical anthropology specialties (e.g. facial approximation, craniofacial superimposition and face photo-comparison). It is crucial to keep in mind that the majority of face imaging techniques are currently not utilized for identification but rather to help law enforcement authorities focus or steer investigations so that other, more effective, methods of identification can be used. This publication offers a theoretical overview of these methodologies' goals, the state of the science around them. Keywords: Facial Imaging, face photo-comparison, facial approximation, artistic sketch, craniofacial identification, photographic superimposition.

3-Dimensional Forensic Facial Reconstruction Techniques: Traditional and Current Developments (A Review of the Comparison Study)

by Aparna Thamby, Ashi Yadav

A frequently used technique in forensic human identification is facial approximation. Facial reconstruction in forensics attempts to recreate the deceased's facial features using the skull beneath to identify and recognize the person. When the standard procedures of investigation are unsuccessful when confronted with a severely decomposed, disfigured, or skeletonized person, facial reconstruction might be employed as a best technique to identify the unknown skeletal remains. The three-dimensional component of facial approximation is the main topic of this review article, which also provides an overview of conventional and automated current development methods. The face is typically sculpted using a traditional approach that can be subjective and time-consuming: physically modelling clay onto a replica of a skull. Researchers may now generate virtual computed models of anatomical structures via three-dimensional (3D) imaging technologies, which enable them to go beyond the use of traditional clay models. As a result of recent technological advancements, better, quicker and more adaptable computer-based procedures are being developed. Nevertheless, the different techniques used in the facial reconstruction and the comaprison study of both traditional and current developments have also been summarized. Keywords: Forensic facial reconstruction, Forensic, Forensic Anthropology, Technology, Current development, Traditional, Three dimensional imaging

Evaluation of Taphonomic Changes to Bone

by Rashmi Sharma, Ashi Yadav

Analysis of taphonomic change to human skeletal remains helps forensic anthropologists to estimate the time since death and evaluate whether the discovery location was the actual crime scene. This study examines taphonomic changes in bone staining, abrasions, completeness, and aquatic life activity observed within forensic anthropology. When analyzing taphonomic effects, it is often necessary to interpret several overlapping changes. Individual taphonomic effects can be separated from each other and follow the rules of relative timing, allowing earlier or later effects to be determined. The rules are similar to those used in archaeological and geological stratigraphy, from which the basic concepts of superposition and other physical relationships arise. Taphonomic effects can result from a number of processes associated with early stages (death, decomposition, and removal of fresh remains) or later stages (staining of bone surfaces, bone decay, and leaching of dry remains). The relative ordering of taphonomic effects on a set of remains can be used to reconstruct their post-mortem history and distinguish human activity, including trauma, from scavengers and other biological factors. Keywords: Forensic anthropology, skeletal remains, taphonomic effects, bone staining, biological factors, etc.

Child Abuse Cases: Comparing before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic

by Beta Gizela

Covid-19 pandemic brought a major change in people's lives. The demands of being able to adapt quickly do not always live up to expectations. This condition can have a bad impact on vulnerable groups, include children to have a higher risk of experiencing violence. On the other hand, health services and stakeholder attention are focused on handling pandemics. The purpose of this study is comparing the prevalence of cases of violence in children before and during the pandemic examined at Dr. Soeradji Tirtonegoro Hospital, comparing risk factors for child abuse before and during pandemics. Method: This is an observational study, analysed in descriptive data. Result: The results of research conducted at Dr. Soeradji Tirtonegoro Hospital period of 2017-2019 showed an relatively flat in cases of violence both physically and sexually against children every year. In 2017 there were 15 cases, 2018 increased to 17 cases, 2019 to 14 cases. In pandemic period researcher get the number of child abuse increase to 26 cases. Most victims are female, and the age around 15-17 year old. Conclusion: Prevalence of child abuse cases managed in Dr. Soeradji Tirtonegoro Hospital increased during pandemic. Keywords: Vulnerable, Child Abuse, During Pandemic, Prevalence, Hospital

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