Anthropological Studies[Abbr: Acd. Jr. AJASt]
Age-Related Trabecular Bone Changes in Pubic and Auricular Surface of the Ileum in Post-Mortem CT
by Naik Baby Banjita Priyadarshini, Ashi Yadav, Arti Varshney
In various domains, including Forensic Anthropology, Archeology, and Medicolegal Investigations - accurate identification of someone’s age remains pivotal to carrying out legal proceedings or upholding humanitarian objectives. This review paper unveils a scientific method of studying Post Mortem Computed Tomography (CT) scans to achieve forensically precise age estimations by closely analyzing trabecular bone changes within pelvic bones. Throughout a person's existence, the trabecular bone, which is made up of connected bony struts within cancellous bone, changes morphologically. Advanced imaging techniques can be used to see and measure these age-related changes. Alongside detailing the underlying principles involved in using CT scans to assess someone’s age we also explore potential challenges that may arise from employing this method. Furthermore, we examine the validity and limitations associated with analyzing trabecular bone changes within pelvic bones ascertaining one’s true age - ultimately showcasing its critical impact on forensic activities. Keywords: Trabecular bone, Pelvic bone, Forensic age estimation, Post-mortem CT
The Future Of PMI Estimation: Omics Science And its Potential For Forensic Investigations
by Gayathry Sekhar, Ashi Yadav, Arti Varshney
Estimating post mortem interval (PMI) is a crucial aspect of forensic investigations involving skeletal remains. Traditional methods of estimating PMI rely on factors such as weather conditions, insect activity, and decomposition rates, which are often subjective and imprecise. In recent years, the application of omic science, which involves the study of large-scale biological data sets such as proteomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, has emerged as a promising approach for estimating PMI. This review paper discusses the current state of omic science in estimating PMI from skeletal remains and also explore the different types of omic data that can be analyzed for this purpose, including transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and microbiomics. We also highlight the advantages and limitations of each type of omic data. Keywords: Postmortem interval, Skeletal remains, Omic sciences, Proteomics, Genomics, Metabolomics.
Forensic Anthropology: Advancements in Conventional Field in New Millennium
by Samiksha Nayyar, Ashi Yadav, Arti Varshney
An overview of the function of forensic anthropology (FA) in the new millennium is provided in the following brief review. In this review paper author describe the role and novel developments of the area, with specific reference to the last five years, following an introduction that deals with the increasing definition of the discipline as well as the question of professionalism and training. Such advancements are covered in detail, with a distinction made between the function of research in forensic anthropology subfields that deal with human remains and subfields that deal with the living. It is important to note the developments and roadblocks that remain in the "human remains" arena in terms of determining species, postmortem intervals, sexing, aging, and attribution of ancestry. Standards in facial reconstruction and positive identification by bone morphology are required, and the anthropologist's expanding roles in spotting symptoms of trauma are also emphasized. Last but not least, the relatively new role of the forensic anthropologist in the field of identification of the living is described, despite the fact that research in this area is still underrepresented. These studies focus on the development of methods for recognizing faces (for example, in the case of crimes recorded by video surveillance systems), aging living people, or children depicted in pedo pornographic material). Keywords - Forensic Anthropology, Development, Recent Research, Identification, Human Remains
DNA Methylation for Age Estimation: An Epigenetic Approach in Forensic Anthropology
by Somya Jinghania, Ashi Yadav, Arti Varshney
In recent years, forensic research has focused on age estimation using DNA methylation pattern analysis. It is still unclear if other specimen types are appropriate for forensic epigenetic age assessment and whether further decomposition may impact the patterns of methylation of CpG sites. Buccal swabs from living individuals are a convenient way to gather DNA for estimating epigenetic age. The age at death-calculation of the unidentified deceased may be another forensic use for epigenetic age estimation. Numerous studies have documented age-related DNA methylation alterations in different tissues and bodily fluids, as well as age-predictive models. Despite the fact that age-related DNA methylation alterations can be tissue-specific, there is a multi-tissue age estimator that has substantial applicability to a variety of tissues and body fluids. Keywords: DNA Methylation, age estimation, buccal swabs, forensic anthropology
Estimation of Age from Developed Teeth
by Sushmita, Ashi Yadav, Arti Varshney
A significant aspect of establishing a person's identity in various legal, forensic, or anthropological study contexts is age estimation. There is evidence that hormonal issues and poor nutrition have a relatively lower impact on dental development than skeletal development. Determining dental age is basically done using two methods: radiographically and clinically. The development of teeth determines the clinical approach to measure dental age. This tactic is better because it is more practical, doesn't require any special equipment, and is less expensive. The best choice for determining age is based on tooth arrangement because it has less variation than other advancement factors. One of the changes that can be clearly seen among the many distinctive ones that take place from tooth development to the final shedding of teeth is the emission of teeth. Keywords: Age estimation, dental age, forensic, tooth development.