Academic Journal of

Anthropological Studies

[Abbr: Acd. Jr. AJASt]

Hand Index of the Male Khatris of Delhi (India)

by Deepika Kakkar, Dr. K.P.S Kushwaha

Human Hand act as a sensory and motor organ which is a versatile part of human body. Hand measurements are used in the fields of, forensic anthropology, bio-metrics, ergonomics, and reconstructive surgeries, mechanical studies and clinical practice. Many studies have been conducted to correlate hand index with the personality of the person and also to the predisposition to certain diseases. The main objective of this study was to classify Hand Index of the male Khatris. It was carried out on 160 apparently healthy male Khatris of age group 18-50yrs residing in Delhi. Sliding caliper was used to measure hand length (from interstylion to dactylion of middle finger) and hand breadth ( from metacarpal radialis to metacarpal ulnare). Data was statistically analyzed and compared with that of other Indian populations as well as of the populations of other countries reported earlier. In this study hand lengths ranged from 15.20 cm to 22.10 cm (mean value =18.29±1.12) and hand breadth from 6.50 cm to 9.60 cm ( mean value of 8.05 ± 0.49) .The mean hand Index of males belonging to Khatris was 44.13 falling in the category Mesocheir as per classification proposed by Martin and Seller (1957). It can be concluded that the male Khatris can be classified as Mesocheir who have long fingers with short palm. The morphological characteristic of hand belonging to any category depends on gender, ethnicity, socio-cultural domain, environment & genetic factors which differ from region to region. These studies greatly help in forming human anthropometric Atlas useful in the fields of criminal investigation and evolutionary studies. Hand dimensions are also useful in the identification of mutilated remains in disaster cases, in tracing the ethnicity and geographical origin of the person. Keywords: Hand Index, Ergonomics, Human Identification, Criminal investigation, Hand Classification, Mesocheir

Dentition as Marker for Establishing Individual Identity

by Shreyashee Pandey

Forensic odontology is the scientific discipline that utilizes the principles of dentistry to aid in the positive identification of human remains. Forensic anthropologist work very closely with forensic odontologists who apply their knowledge of dentition, dental appliances and dental work in the area of positive identification and bite mark analysis. Dental features such as the morphology of the tooth, changes in shape and size, wear patterns, color and position of the tooth and other dental features and anomalies give every individual a unique identity. Thus, the assistance of forensic odontologists is often requested when human remains are decomposed, buried, skeletonized, or beyond the point of clear facial recognition due to severe facial disfigurement. The role and importance of odontology in the judiciary is fast growing and hence a depth knowledge of the same is justified. This paper aims at providing an overview of dental evidence and their use in forensic identification. It highlights the importance of the dental records in the efficient identification of the conflict victims. A case study has also been given to better understand the application of odontology in establishing individual identity. Keywords- Forensic Odontology, Positive Identification, Bite-marks, Facial Disfigurement, Dental Anomalies.

Review on Sex Determination from Fingerprints

by Nazla Khalid

Fingerprints are unique characteristics which helps in positive personal identification. Two fingerprints are never alike, thus one of the best technique for individualization. Fingerprint has been the most commonly encountered trace evidence in scene of crime in the form of latent, patent and plastic prints. Dermatoglyphics is the branch of science related to patterns of ridges on skin. Dermatoglyphics is further divided into qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative Dermatoglyphics encompasses difference in fingerprints patterns and minutiae; whereas, ridge density (RD) and Ridge Count (RC) are incorporated with quantitative study of fingerprints. Epidermal ridge density is determined by means of following: (1) Distance between the ridges and (2) Width of Ridges. Thickness/Width of the epidermal ridges varies among individuals, generally women possess ridges which are fine in contrary to men and, thus, ridge density per given unit of space is greater for female. This form basis for determination of sex from Fingerprints. Researches have conducted the studies among Caucasian–American, Spanish, African–American, Southern Indian and Central Indian populations and similar trend of women having ridge density greater over men is observed. From studies of various researches over the decades, it is proved that ridge density will help the investigators to identify the sex of the perpetrators and thereby eliminate least significant possibilities. Keywords: Fingerprints, Dermatoglyphics, Ridge Density, Sex Determination, Personal Identification, Ridge Width

Forensic Genealogy; Identifying the Culprit

by Ruchika Dwivedi, Dr. Mohd. Amjad Bhatt

It has been perceived in past years that the cases of DNA which have been unresolved by direct matching with DNA Database can be easily resolved by linking the SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) data with sequestered as well as open genomic databases. In this way, using the mixture of traditional genealogical research and genome comparison, the investigators can easily trace the distant relatives of the perpetrator whose DNA has been found on the crime scene and ultimately identify the real culprit of a violent crime. The approach is thriving in identifying the culprit with lesser crime and identifying the unknown deceased person. Such advances are bringing focus into the ethical question such as how much access of DNA Database should be granted to law enforcement agencies and how to control over DNA Data of public genome contributor with its best empowerment. The needful policies may take more time to developed but till then at least we could be better informed about such kind of familial searching policies which have already been developed for the use of Federal DNA Database searches and about the interest of anonymity and privacy of civilians Keywords: Forensics, Genealogy, DNA, Genomic Database, Crime Scene

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