Academic Journal of

Forensic Sciences

[Abbr: Acd. Jr. AJFSc]

Retrieved Data Comparison of WhatsApp and Signal Application

by Preeti Ansari, Ritika Sharma

Digital forensic is a scientific study which identify, extract, analyze and present the evidence which was found in digital devices. The WhatsApp, the Signal is a mobile application which allows user to transfer messages, images, audio, videos, location etc. The Smart phones are merely used in criminal activities and can be used for digital evidence as a part of an investigation. The Digital Forensic Tools used by the investigators were not actually designed for the forensic application. Data retrieval tools are generally use as the method of restoring data partially or completely from damaged, failed, corrupted storage media. This paper focuses on data recovery and also comparison of extracted data from the WhatsApp and the Signal application. Keywords: Mobile forensic, WhatsApp, Signal, MSAB XRY, Cellebrite UFED, Data Extraction.

Reformation in Legal System and Governance to Curb Cyber Terrorism

by Dr. Neelkamal Ganesh, Dr. Dhwani Patel , Dr. Pankti Patel, Dr. Swati Kanojia

Cyberterrorism is the future of terrorist activities, it is driven by the motive of destroying enemies’ operational capabilities. They inflict social hatred amongst the people of a community based on status, religion, nationality, etc. It is grouped into 3 main categories Simple – Unstructured, Advanced – Structured and Complex- Co-ordinated. The recent Boll on Cryptocurrency and Regulation of Official Digital Currency 2021 is also being discussed in Parliament. With the due progress of time various amendments are done in the legal system in the Information Technology Act and the Cyber laws. Improvement in governance to restrain terrorist activities have also brought about some changes which will be put forth in the following paper. Keywords: Cyber Terrorism, Cyber Crime, Money Laundering, Cryptocurrency.

Resilience as Correlates of Posttraumatic Growth among Silent Victims: A Study on Widows

by Rajiv Kumar, Dr. Punam Midha

Widows all over the world are the “invisible forgotten sufferers” who are highly affected by the “sin of omission”, as they are hardly visible in the record of many developing countries. There is a scant literature exploring especially the major psychological capital i.e. resilience among widows which intrinsically motivate them to grow aftermath trauma of demise of a husband. With these notions in mind, the current researchers initiated to assess “resilience and posttraumatic growth” among widows and to find out the link of resilience with posttraumatic growth (PTG). A group of 300 rural widows within the age range of 30 – 50 years was selected from the rural areas of Haryana and Punjab states (India). Standardized tools such as Wagnild and Young’s (1993), Resilience Scale and “Tedeschi and Calhoun’s (1996) Posttraumatic Growth Inventory” were used. “Descriptive statistics” and correlational analysis were calculated to find out the “level of resilience and posttraumatic growth” (overall and its various domains) and link of resilience with PTG. The findings indicated a very low level of resilience and an above average level of PTG among rural widows. Correlational analysis indicated the highly significant positive association of PTG (overall and its various domains) with resilience, thereby indicating that resilience facilitates growth in terms of establishing cordial relationships, searching out new possibilities, enhancing positive strength, boosting spirituality and by appreciating the minor gifts of life. The current findings have indicated that widows can flourish and thrive in their life after the demise spouse with the help of their own personal assets which may act as a resource of their growth. The current findings have implications for the counselor for counselling of widows for providing interventions based on strength-based perspective. Keywords: Posttraumatic Growth, Resilience, Widows, Psychological Asset, Trauma.

A Review on Criminal Profiling of Cyber Criminals

by Niharika Pagare

A shift in paradigm of crime and criminals has been observed in the late half of the 20th century. With technology advancement, there has been advancement in crime and criminals too. NCRB data revealed that Computer Related crime formed the highest number of Cyber Crimes accounting for 75.2% during 2019. Cybercrime is an ever increasing threat to the security of computer systems. Profiling involves the analysis of personal characteristics or behavioural patterns, which allows an investigator to make generalizations about a person or a crime scene. Profiling employs analysis to determine whether a particular person may be engaged in a particular crime, as determined by evidence. Unlike traditional crime scenes that are tangible and have observable evidence, cybercrimes are not as easily examined and observed, there are no physical weapons or visible signs that might contribute to the art of profiling. Literature suggests the investigative tool of profiling had not been introduced in a courtroom until 1998. Criminal profiling gained popularity in serial offender cases, specifically serial killer cases. Criminal profiling, however, has increased its use in cybercrimes throughout the years since the development of computers and the Internet. Throughout the history of both criminal profiling and cybercrime, there have been many uses for criminal profiling but one primary objective has been identifying and understanding the criminal. This review paper aims to study the integration of two fields that is Forensic Psychology and Cyber forensics. Criminal profiling of Cyber Criminals in current era can help in monitoring and preventing Cybercrimes. By understanding online offenders and their pathways towards deviant behaviours, we can better identify steps that need to be taken to prevent such criminal activities. Keywords: Criminal Profiling, Cyber Crime, Cyber Criminals, Personality Traits, Cyber Trials, Cyber Behaviour.

Variations in Handwriting Characteristics due to Different Grip Patterns

by Puravi Tripathi

The identification of the writer group attributes like gender, age and handedness from handwriting is an important goal in forensic studies field. In most criminal cases where handwriting is used as evidence where few handwritten characters extracted from tax form, ransom letters, anonymous letters, wills etc. are the disposal of the forensic document examiner. The analysis of handwritten documents from the view point of determining the writer has great bearing on the criminal justice system. A writer’s identity cannot be established through a single individual or general feature in the writing. Rather, identity is established through a combination of the significant features of writers. In order to analyze and identify a handwritten document “grip” also play an important role which give a particular type of handwriting with different handwriting characteristics. This can help a document expert to eliminate a suspect or group of suspects on the basis of their grip pattern. Keywords: Handwriting characteristics, Questioned documents, Grip pattern, Handwriting, Handwriting variations

Determination of Toxic Heavy Metals in Atmosphere of Kalar, As Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

by Hersh J. Noori, Harem Ahmad Ibrahim

Estimation of heavy metals in ambient air is crucial for environment study due to their toxicity impact on people. Some metals have been reported as carcinogenic such as arsenic (As), [hexavalent chromium (Cr), nickel and (Ni) cadmium (Cd)]. In Iraq, a lot of private electrical generators have been installed in every neighborhood of all Iraqi cities. Concurrently the industrial is so near to the population cities. This makes an uncontrolled and fearful environment. Thus the aim of this study is to find the concentration of toxic heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, and Zn) in the air from different sites (population areas that contain many electrical generators, Industrial areas, traffic lights and green land area) in the Kalar city. Using a homemade apparatus that has a capacity of flow rate was 0.05 m3/sec. for one hour, the total volume of each sample was 180 m3/h collected. For this purpose, inductive coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) has been used to determine mentioned metals, the concentration ranged from 7 µgL-1 - 18.5 µgL-1 Pb, 47 µgL-1 - 245 µg.m-3 Zn, 7 µg.m-3 -1, and 13 µgL-1 - 106 µgL-1 Cr. The main sources of these heavy metals in the sampled area could be attributed to the car and electrical generation emission, and factory emission. Keywords: Electrical Generator, Heavy Metals, Environment, Health and ICP-OES.

Chip-Off Technique in Mobile Forensics

by Vikas Razdan

In the era of digital age, one in every of the foremost important new areas of forensics is mobile forensics, specifically the power to extract valuable information in the form of data using automated techniques from mobile devices that have suffered physical damage and are totally non-functional. Digital forensic methodologies involve various techniques of obtaining data from smartphones which are as follows Joint Test Action Group technique. logical extraction, backup extraction, filing system extraction, , Serial Peripheral Interface technique, when all such methods fail CHIP-OFF is the only technique which include chip extraction and reading data from it. CHIP-OFF FORENSICS may be successful for the smart phone devices that have received waterlogged and fire damage. In chip-off thermal based technique is used to physically remove the microchip from the smart device and this methodology is employed when other techniques as mentioned above fail. In such cases it's mandatory to unsolder the NAND non-volatile storage chip, as it contains all the valuable user data. In most of the cases the NAND chip remains fully functioning. There's vast sort of packages of contemporary NAND chips exist (TSOP48, TLGA52, BGA100, BGA152, etc.). In order to read physical image of information out of chip it's necessary to settle on appropriate smartphone adapter and browse physical image (dump) to a file using various forensic software's, at the tip of process when physical image is converted to logical image, it's a time for further forensic analysis. Keywords: Mobile Forensics, NAND memory chip, Rework Station Data Extraction, Smartphone, Kit Adapters.

Revealing the Hidden: Deciphering the Secret Handwriting

by Vanshika Narang, Israa J. Hakeem, Dr. Ranjeet Kumar Singh

Secret writings are invisible writings that can be only seen after using any development technique which helps in revealing those hidden messages. The invisible inks are used for writing the secret message. These invisible inks can be any kind of colourless fluid or liquid which evaporates slowly. Earlier secret writing was used by the government mainly but nowadays the criminals also use various kinds of invisible inks for fraud purposes. Thus, the cases of fraud by secret writing are increasing day by day; but with the advancement of technology, various detecting and deciphering methods have been developed for forensic purposes which help to identify the source of those particular ink which is being used along with revealing also. These universal and common techniques for decipherment of invisible inks are development by heat and development by Iodine fuming methods. The major purpose of this term paper is to give a collective information about some of those techniques and their methodology for decipherment. Keywords: Secret writing, Invisible inks, Decipherment, Hidden message, Handwriting

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