Ocean Sciences[Abbr: Acd. Jr. AJOS]
Marine Pollution and Its Impact on Humans and Animals
by Anil Kumar Nair
The presumption that money can compensate everything is wrong because of the ever increasing pollution in the sea which destroys the marine life and also disturbing the whole ecological balance. Oceans are the main source for dumping many types of waste in present eras such as plastic, oil waste, waste water etc. For many years, these dumping of the trashes is now leading to the death of variety of aquatic flora and fauna and also causing the extinction of many species of fishes. Due to the direct consequences of pollution, millions of animals, including birds and fishes which are completely dependent on the water are being killed. Many other types of oceanic pollution such as radioactive and industrial waste, pollution due to festivals, oil spills are just as costly and can contaminate the oceans for thousands of years to come. This paper gives a brief discussion about the marine pollution and also its impact on human and the aquatic life. Keywords: Marine Pollution, Festivals, Humans, Oil spills, Dumping
Effect of Contaminants on Coral Reefs- A Study on Oceanic Species
by Rohit Vishwakarma
Coral reefs are structures that are biogenic in nature, it often contributes to the seaward section of tropical shorelines, and it usually buffers the coast from wave action and erosion. Almost 600 species of calcifying corals contribute to the nature by being habitat of thousands of tropical fishes and algae. These structures have existed from past 500 million years. In this study an evaluation had been made on the various factors that have been effecting life of coral reefs and giving rise to oceanic pollution. Unfortunately the growth of the industries are leading to the end of healthy oceanic ecosystem, one can claim that the coral reefs has become one of the most endangered species of the ocean, it has been found that twenty per cent of reefs has been disappeared from earths face in just forty years. Keywords: Oceanic Pollution, Coral Reef, Bleaching.
Ocean Energy and Development
by T. Varghese
An incredible store of energy is given by the ocean which covers more than two-third part of our earth. The waves of the oceans and seas give huge quantities of clean energy. Ocean energy is also known as marine energy is that sort of energy which is carried out by the waves of ocean, tides, salinity and different temperatures difference. Ocean energy plays a significant role in the system of future energy. As India has a long seashore, therefore, ocean energy has attracted increasing interest. For many years, technologies harnessing energy from the ocean have been discussed. To ensure the technology of ocean energy many numbers of mechanism and initiatives have been put which in short-term become cost- competitive, in order to exploit the benefits. This paper gives an overview of the various technologies used for the extraction of ocean energy and the present stage of this research in the arena of ocean energy with their impacts on the environment. This paper also discussed or highlights the area of research gaps exists and the efforts for future implementation on ocean energy. Keywords: Ocean Energy, Impacts, Technologies, Marine Energies
Brine Pools and its Habitat in the Red Sea
by Lijo Mathew
Red Sea which sometimes referred as Erythraean Sea is a bay that is found between Africa and Asia between Salt tectonics and has intensely shaped the sediment that is superimposed assemblies. There are some places beneath the sea or ocean where the layer of salt scatter and spread up itself in such a way that it forms the arrangements of sediments in shape of domes, forming outsized hills like structure at the seabed. While at some other places, the salt is used to ooze out, which is the leading reason that why the sediment flows out towards the sea bottom where the sea basin is shallow. Salt migration mounting superficially is the chief power that guards this oozing motion. The association of chemosynthetic groups and salt may be ranges a far unpretentious perforation deposits of hydrocarbons. When seawater interacts with deposits of salt, it gets liquefied and the consequential outcome appears as brines which is saltier countless times than natural occurring seawater. They are majorly found in the Gulf of Mexico. These heavy brine streams in network that are outside of the seabed consequence into forming pond like structures, and sometimes even lagoons of brine which are huge in dimension. Among these few of them don’t have an evident synthesis of chemical action. While some other brines, they have impenetrable floor-coverings of methane-using mussels forming into tassels and twist like network all around its peripheral edge. The reasons for these disparity is not acknowledged yet. In this paper, we have studied the brine pools of the Red Sea and its habitat. Keywords: Red Sea, Brine, Hyper-saline, Temperature, Salt-tectonic, Bay.
Impact of CO2 and Climate Change on Marine Ecosystems
by Anushka Das
The carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere and the changes in the climate are linked with the coexisting shifting that are present in the temperature, input of nutrients, circulation, stratification and the acidification in ocean. All these parameters are large and have potential for the large degree of biological influences. The shifts in the levels of population are initiating due to the intolerance that is physiological to the new kind of environment that changes the patterns and the interaction between the species. The impacts are mainly strike by the tropics and the poles that has the sensitivity towards the ecosystem of solar system to the sea ice. California current is the Midaltitude upwelling systems that has powerful association exists between the species and the climate distribution, the phonologies and the demographics of the organization. The large number of impacts may alter the energy and the flow of material along with the biogeochemical cycles that leads to affect the entire functioning of the ecosystem. Keywords: Marine Ecosystems, Climate Change Impacts, Ocean Acidification